Melbourne Breast Reduction Surgery (Mastopexy) | Specialist Plastic Surgeons
Breast Reduction surgery reduces heavy breast weight and treats skin ptosis. It helps reshape large, droopy looking breast tissues and downward facing nipples that appear stretched or misshapen. Key benefits of a bust reduction include a firmer, perkier and uplifted appearance to your breast shape, nipple position and upper body curves; but the most important outcome from breast reduction surgery is often a reduction in physical discomfort, skin chaffing, and indentations in the skin.
Does Breast Reduction also include a Breast Lift?
Yes, reduction of the breasts includes a breast lift and nipple re re-positioning.
Does Breast reduction help reduce back pain, neck pain or shoulder pain?
Yes, many studies suggest neck pain, back pain and shoulder pain are REDUCED or alleviated by reducing excess weight in the chest area due to overly large breast tissues or pendulous, ptotic breasts. Breast reduction/breast lift surgery could be your best solution for reducing breast related neck and back pain.
Definitions of Breast Reduction Surgery
A Reduction Mammoplasty is a surgical breast reduction procedure which aims to:
- improve the position, shape and appearance of your breast mound and aerola nipple complex
- reduce breast volume (reducing weight and size)
- ease back, neck and shoulder pain through reshaping and re-positioning the bust
- make it easier to exercise and shop for swimsuits, bras and clothing
Breast Reduction Overview
What is BREAST REDUCTION Surgery?
Breast Reduction Surgery involves:
- surgical excision of heavy breast weight
- an uplift of the nipples and breast mound
Breast reduction techniques also allow for reshaping of the breasts and nipples for better cleavage with greater balance to the torso.
This breast surgery procedure has been shown to reduce back pain, shoulder pain and neck discomfort caused by heavily-weighted breast tissues; and most patients feel they look ‘lighter’ or ‘trimmer’ after reducing excess volume in the upper torso. Postural improvements are also noted by patients after breast reduction, who feel freer to exercise AND who find it easier to find a comfortable, well-fitted bra.
Breast Reduction Surgery for women intends to:
- reduce breast size/volume and breast weight
- achieve a more balanced breast size
- attain an uplifted or more symmetrical breast and nipple position
- improve your silhouette and reduce breast-weight associated back, neck and shoulder pain
Results of a breast reduction and ‘breast lift’ are long-lasting; results will, however, be impacted by weight changes and skin ageing over time
Reduction of BREAST VOLUME helps REDUCE skin ptosis (sagging breast tissues; pendulous breasts and downwards pointing nipples) and may improve postural health.
What happens during Breast Reduction Surgery?
During breast reduction surgery:
- Breast tissues and redundant skin are excised
- Nipples reshaped and re-positioned (uplifted)
- best practice methods are applied for shaping (liposuction or fat transfer)
Breast Reduction Guide
Download our in-depth Guide to Breast Reduction Surgery
Breast Reduction Benefits
Reduction Mammoplasty Surgery can alleviate numerous concerns related to elongated, enlarged or pendulous breasts, such as reducing skin chafing, excess sweating, ill-fitting bras, shoulder-strap dig-ins, neck pain, shoulder pain and back pain linked with heavy chest weight.
Reducing breast size and lifting nipples and breast tissues using Breast Reduction methods:
- provides a firmer, more rounded OR naturally-teardrop shape to your breasts
- reduces skin chafing OR excess sweating under or around your breasts
- improves the appearance of elongated nipples or sagging ptotic breast skin
- makes it easier to exercise or wear different types of clothing, bras and swimwear
Proven benefits of Breast Reduction for overly-voluminous breasts include:
- alleviating neck pain, back pain and shoulder pain
- being able to find comfortable bras that fit properly
- reducing postural issues related to heavy breast weight
- exercising without volume-related constrictions
- increased physical comfort AND psychological confidence PLUS looking like you’ve lost weight due to a more balanced chest area
- firmer, perkier breast cleavage that appears more tear-dropped or rounded than droopy
Other key benefits: After breast reduction surgery, you’ll have more comfortably sized, well-shaped and firmer-looking breasts.
This makes it easier to wear different bras, lingerie, swimsuits, gym gear and other garments AS WELL AS exercise more comfortably (yoga, running, cycling, kickboxing, dancing and more).
Will Reducing my breast size reduce Neck pain?
Breast Reduction Surgery: Posture, Weight and Quality of Life
KEY BENEFITS of having breast reduction surgery:
- improve quality of life and health outcomes by being able to exercise more freely/more regularly
- greater likelihood of exercising more often after reduction
- potential weight loss and increased fitness levels due to more freedom of movement and more activity
- reduction of breast-size related back pain, neck pain or shoulder pain
- reduced skin problems such as chafing or skin indentations where bra straps struggled to sustain and lift the heavy breast tissues of women with larger breasts and heavy, pendulous breast tissues
- reduced sagging (ptosis)/more central and uplifted breast and nipple areolar complex tissues
- body confidence/better posture
- less social discomfort/more clothing options
Breast Reduction Price in Melbourne
HOW MUCH does Breast Reduction Surgery COST?
- The Cost of Breast Reduction Surgery in Melbourne ranges between $12,000 and $20,000 or above, depending on what’s included and what the requirements are. Some surgeries take longer than others and are more complex to achieve good shaping; others may involve a smaller reduction or breast lift alone without a reduction.
- Prices depend on the QUALITY of the Surgeon, WHERE the operation is performed, TYPE of anaesthesia, whether or not liposuction is included, the amount of after-care, and your revision surgery options in the event of a complication.
- If you’re shopping for CHEAP surgery options – NOT recommended because it is unlikely to include a FRACS Specialist Plastic Surgeon – please find out WHAT IS actually INCLUDED in your Quote and what is EXCLUDED.
- Make sure the advertised price includes ALL aspects of surgery NOT just the surgeon’s fees.
- TIP: REVISION SURGERY is not only costly, but it’s also not always able to FIX whatever goes wrong in your first surgery; some patients are permanently disfigured by having chosen cheap breast reduction as reported on FOUR CORNERS.
Is Breast Reduction covered by MEDICARE or PRIVATE HEALTH?
Medicare NEVER covers cosmetic procedures.
However, Breast Reduction is only occasionally cosmetic. More often, reduction mammoplasty is performed due to medical indications related to health.
Is a Breast Reduction cosmetic – or sometimes medically necessary?
Some types of breast reduction MAY be eligible for an MBS/Medicare rebate.
- First – you pay for surgery THEN – apply to Medicare after it’s completed.
- Extensive documentation, assessments, volumetric reports and photographic proof is required.
- Rebates or coverage is NOT guaranteed.
If you have an approved MBS code (after surgery), your health fund MAY also cover some of your surgery costs.
- However, you will still have OUT OF POCKET expenses.
- You won’t know for certain until AFTER surgery whether or not it’ll be covered as it’s subjected to MEDICARE reviews of your documentation.
What is the MBS Item Code for Breast Reduction?
Recommended reading for Medicare Breast Reduction Criteria:
- MBS Item Codes, Medicare rebates for PLASTIC SURGERY
- WILL MEDICARE COVER BREAST REDUCTION
- See also: CHANGES to Health Fund Policies Coverage – Gold, Silver, Bronze and Basic – what it means for plastic surgery patients.
Can I use SUPER to PAY for a breast procedure?
- Early withdrawal of Super for cosmetic breast surgery is usually NOT an option to pay for breast surgery.
- If you have a medically indicated reason or condition requiring a reduction mammoplasty, then you MAY investigate early Super withdrawal for surgery.
- Early WITHDRAWAL of SUPER to finance surgery has major tax implications. Patients should seek reputable, professional financial advice before pursuing any of these options.
- See also: Plastic Surgery Payment methods
Breast Reduction Surgery: Before and After PHOTOS
An example of breast reduction results PLUS fully mature breast reduction SCARS is shown below.
More Before & After photos of Photos are available for Breast Reduction.
Breast Reduction Surgery
What does BREAST REDUCTION involve?
- Breast reduction is a surgical procedure that:
- reduces the volume and weight of breasts
- repositions remaining tissues
- lifts and elevates the breast mound and nipples
- It is also known medically by the term REDUCTION MAMMOPLASTY.
- The main benefits are lighter, more shapely and/or more attractive breast shape.
How LONG does Breast Reduction Surgery take?
- Breast Reduction surgery time in theatre usually takes between 2 to 4 hours.
- This can vary depending on the skill of the surgeon AND the TYPE of breast reduction performed.
- Other factors for surgery duration include your body’s responses to being under Anaesthetic, whether additional LIPOSUCTION is included for better breast shaping, and other factors.
Does it HURT to have a breast reduction?
Breast Reduction Surgery PAIN: Is it painful to have a breast reduction?
- Does breast reduction hurt? The answer is that it varies from patient to patient.
- All surgery may have some discomfort, especially in the first few days or weeks after surgery.
- The best news is that our Breast Reduction Surgeons aim to keep you as comfortable as possible during your surgery AND recovery period. They have special methods to help minimise any pain or discomfort, such as advanced local anaesthetic options (breast area numbing injections) to reduce pain and limit discomfort in the days just after surgery.
- That noted, every patient feels discomfort in a different way, subjectively, and this relates to many factors.
- You may feel a bit sore, achy or uncomfortable – although SOME patients say they are surprised how little discomfort they feel.
- Most post-operative pain after breast reduction surgery can be mediated with over the counter pain medications.
- NOTE: Incision lines may ITCH a bit as your incision lines heal.
- Sleep may be disrupted after surgery, however, and you may be asked to sleep in an elevated position for a few days OR AVOID certain sleeping positions for the first few days or weeks.
- Remember to wear the recommended post-op garments as directed.
Do NOT try to do too much too soon or you could impede your healing and recovery AND you could incur higher levels of discomfort – your body needs to heal. Give it time.
Are DRAINS required for Breast Reduction?
- Our Plastic Surgeons can offer drain-free procedures for breast reduction surgery (Melbourne VIC Australia).
- DRAIN FREE procedures MAY provide greater comfort during recovery.
- Some patients and Surgeons may decide DRAINS are required.
- If used, drains may feel uncomfortable but are typically removed within a few days.
- Discuss the PROS and CONS of DRAINS vs DRAIN FREE BREAST REDUCTION with your Surgeon.
Breast Reduction Types (Melbourne)
What are the different TYPES of Breast Reduction?
Breast Reduction Incisions (Anchor, Le Jour) are currently the best-practice methods for breast reduction.
There are three (3) popular breast reduction surgery methods or incision placement options
- Best choices of TYPE of breast reduction surgery depend on the SURGEON’s expertise and the PATIENT’s need.
- Your preferred Surgeon may advise you that you may get a better result using a specific method – ask for details.
- The two (2) primary methods for Breast Reduction used in Australia are:
- the Anchor incision method
- the Le Jour technique (less scarring under the breast crease)
- The third method involving peri-areolar incisions may not be used often as many Surgeons feel the risks outweigh the benefits and they also find the Le Jour or Anchor method of breast reduction gets them a better result with less risk to nipple function(s) and nipple sensation and tissue integrity
- Liposuction is an adjunct or ADDED method for enhanced shaping and is done as part of the surgery (during or after the primary breast reduction/nipple lifting surgery).
What Techniques are used in a Breast Reduction?
During breast reduction surgery, your Specialist Plastic Surgeon will:
- surgically remove a certain amount of breast tissues (typically removing from 1 kg to up to 3 kg or more)
- reduce breast proportions and overall breast weight
- reposition your nipples higher on the breast mound
- adjust remaining tissues to a firmer location
- allowing your breasts to rest more firmly on your upper chest area
- providing you with a more balanced upper torso/chest wall
- reshape your breast contours, often using additional liposuction or liposculpture breast reduction
- may involve advanced breast curvature contouring techniques
- may include bra fat area contouring
- Reduce breast tissue volume and breast weight not only reduces discomfort and sagging tissues, but also corrects for pendulous breasts
- correcting for droopy-looking, low-hanging breasts and nipples leaving a more rounded or tear-drop shaped breast as opposed to elongated breast shapes that have downwards-pointing nipples (nipple areolar complex or “NAC”).
Once the breasts are lighter in weight AND more firmly positioned on the chest wall:
- back pain, neck pain and shoulder pain are often reduced
- you’ll look like you’ve lost weight (and you WILL have lost several kilos of breast weight)
- you’ll be able to see your lower torso again
Top Breast Reduction Surgeons in Melbourne Australia include:
- Dr Craig Rubinstein FRACS (Plas)
- Dr Richard Sackelariou FRACS (Plas)
- Dr Rebecca Wyten FRACS (Plas)
- Dr Geoff Barnett FRACS (Plas)
- Dr Richard Maxwell FRACS (Plas)
Reduction Mammoplasty Incisions
What is the best INCISION for breast reduction?
Main TYPES of INCISIONS for Breast Reduction:
- ANCHOR technique (surgical incisions made under the breasts, up the lower pole and around the NAC)
- Le Jour METHOD (also called “a lollipop” incision method, similar to anchor techniques but reduces scars by avoiding the incision and scar under the breast fold)
- PERI-AREOLAR (‘donut’ incision) – rarely performed due to complications with nipple sensation and nipple functions
See the illustration for breast reduction and nipple reshaping incision techniques.
Breast Reduction Recovery
How long does breast reduction recovery take?
- Everyone heals differently so expect some variance in recovery times up to several months.
- However, breast reduction recovery GENERALLY takes approximately 10 to 14 days – if you have no complications or delayed healing.
- Remember to follow post-op instructions PRECISELY for a faster recovery.
Longer periods are often required BEFORE resuming certain lifting or exercising activities – ask your Surgeon how long before you can start exercising, lifting children or grandchildren, and other heavy lifting or strenuous activities.
What are the Best BRAS to buy or wear after Breast Reduction?
- You will be required to wear a firmly-fitted support garment after surgery for the requisite period of time a Surgeon advises.
- This post-operative garment may need to be worn for several days or weeks to several months – your Surgeon will advise you how long to wear the post-op garment(s) before other bras.
- Once you recover fully you can wear supportive bras (sports bras with good support are recommended); the more supportive, the better chance of a good result.Can I wear an underwire bra after breast surgery or a breast reduction?
- No, underwire bras need to be avoided after breast surgery including breast reduction.
- UNDERWIRE BRAS must be avoided for ideally 6 months to up to 1 year.
When can I return to WORK after breast reduction?
- This varies from patient to patient and depends on the TYPE of work you perform.
- No heavy lifting is usually mandated for several weeks to a few months.
- Ask your Surgeon; in general, however, light office duties or other tasks may be resumed in about 2 weeks for MOST patients (this can vary however).
When can I start EXERCISING after my breast reduction?
- Your Surgeon will advise you, depending on which TYPE of exercise you’re wanting to perform.
- In general, gentle walking is typically able to be resumed in a few days after Surgery.
- Running, high impact or strenuous exercises need to be avoided UNTIL the time your surgeon says it’s okay.
- This may mean several weeks or several months of certain types of exercise.
- Ask your Surgeon.
Breast Reduction Scars
What do Breast Reduction SCARS look like?
- Scars will be in an ‘anchor’ incision pattern (down AND under the breast) OR
- the Le Jour pattern (down the breast but no incision/no scar UNDER the breast).
- You’ll also have a scar around the nipple areolar complex (“NAC”).
- Nipple incisions TEND to blend in with the edges of the nipples but can vary.
- Liposuction – if added for great shaping results – means additional small incisions will be made.
- liposuction scars are usually small and round but could vary from patient to patient
- these may fade over time
- your scars depend on your surgery, wound care, scar treatments AND your genetics and health habits
What do our Surgeons recommend as best SCAR TREATMENTS?
- Allow at least 12 months to 18 months for scars to settle
- Ask your Surgeon about best practice scar management protocols such as:
- silicone strips
- Fraxel laser treatments
- LED light-based treatments
- Skin pen/DermaPen
- Scar Revision surgery MAY be an option for some more prominent scars after having breast reduction.
Is there a NO-SCAR OPTION for breast reduction?
Liposuction Breast Reduction (“scarless” methods)
No Scar Breast Reduction using liposuction – why it isn’t always your best option
- A very minor reduction in breast size may sometimes be available through liposuction breast reduction
- Scars DO exist, they are just smaller and less noticeable than typical breast reduction scars
- But the disadvantage of liposuction breast reduction is that it ONLY achieves a minor reduction PLUS it does not treat sagging skin or breast ptosis – conditions that can be made worse when the breast volume is reduced but breast skin is not excised, ‘tightened’ or uplifted using surgical strategies.
- Read more on Liposuction Breast Reduction.
Are there TREATMENTS for breast reduction SCARS?
- Your scar is dependent on numerous factors including your genetics, skin condition and health, healing responses, incision stressors and post-op care.
- Be sure you discuss proper incision line care and post-op care with your SURGEON to get the best scar results possible after breast reduction.
- Understand it can take 12 months or longer for scars to settle or fade; sun exposure on scars is a NO NO.
- Silicone strips may help reduce scars.
- Laser, skin needling and/or light-based modalities may also reduce scars after surgery – ask your Surgeon for details or see the team at Coco Ruby Skin.
BREAST REDUCTION RISKS
Are there RISKS in having a breast reduction?
Key risks (not a full list) to consider before you sign a Surgery consent include:
- Skin or wound infection
- Changes to nipple sensation including loss of feeling/sensation changes to the breasts
- Potential disruption of nipple functions that MIGHT impede on breastfeeding
- Breast asymmetry or uneven nipples
- Scars or skin markings, dimples or inverted nipples
- Other risks of surgery in general such as having Anaesthesia, circulatory risks and bleeding
- Unfavourable scarring, Infection, Blood clots.
- Poor wound healing, Breast contour and shape irregularities.
Read more about RISKS OF BREAST REDUCTION SURGERY.
Breast Reduction Surgery – FAQs
Breast Reduction for WOMEN vs Male Gynaecomastia Surgery
- Female Reduction Mammoplasty is known colloquially as a Breast Reduction procedure
- Male Breast Reduction is called Gynecomastia Surgery (USA) or Gynecomastia Surgery (UK/AUS) surgery.
How MUCH tissue weight is removed during an average Breast Reduction?
- The amount of tissues removed can vary from patient to patient.
- It is weighed during surgery and your Surgeon will tell you how much they removed (this is in your surgical notes)
- The average breast reduction removal of tissues to reduce breast weight often involves:
- from 1 to 3 or more kilos removed surgically
- from 2 to 4 kilos in heavier woman or women with very abundant tissues
- It also involves reshaping and repositioning of the NAC (Nipple Areola Complex) PLUS
- Extra liposuction of the breast or side and back area to shape the breasts AND reduce skin folds or skin bulges that would otherwise impede a great surgery result
How MANY Breast Reductions are performed each year (Australia)?
Reduction Mammoplasty Numbers from Country to Country from Surveys of over 43,000 Plastic Surgeons.
- Countries have varying trends for breast surgery.
- Recent surveys in 2017 noted that there were just under 500,000 Breast Reduction Surgeries world-wide (global statistics from the survey indicated approximately 489,486 Reduction Mammoplasties were performed).
- Women AND men have breast reduction surgery (for women, it’s called a Reduction Mammoplasty, for males, it’s known as Gynaecomastia Surgery or Male Breast Reduction.
- Other popular breast surgery procedures around the world include Breast Augmentation, Breast Lift Surgery, and Implant Removal and Replacement (Explant Surgery).
Does QUALITY OF LIFE improve after having a Breast Reduction?
- Patients opt for Breast Reduction for a variety of reasons, personal to their life and health needs.
- The most common reasons women may undergo breast surgery include to reduce or alleviate back pain, shoulder pain or neck pain caused by breast weight or breast size/position, to improve posture, to reduce discomfort when exercising and to improve quality of life and clothing comforts.
- The surgery may also have a positive health impact by reducing skin chafing, excess perspiration under or around the breasts, and bra-strap indentations in the dermal tissues (skin).
- Many scientific articles report extremely high satisfaction or ‘worth it’ ratings by patients who have undergone reduction mammoplasty by a qualified Specialist Plastic Surgeon with expertise in this procedure, such as Dr Rubinstein, Dr McManamny, Dr Sackelariou, Dr Wyten, Dr Barnett and Dr Maxwell (members of Australia’s top breast reduction surgery group based in Melbourne VICTORIA).
- Yes, many women report breast reduction benefits to quality of life and overall health because they can exercise more freely after having their breasts reduced.
Can you breastfeed after having Breast Reduction?
Many women do successfully breastfeed after breast reduction, but there is not a guarantee.
Different methods may increase your chances of breastfeeding after having a reduction of breast tissues and a nipple-area uplift. Ask your Surgeon for details.
Breast Reduction Surgeons – Choosing the best Surgeon
Our Surgeon’s affiliations include:
Who are the TOP SURGEONS in Melbourne for Breast Reduction?
Melbourne | Top Breast Reduction Plastic Surgeons
- Always choose a Specialist Plastic Surgeon who has expertise in breast procedures (look for FRACS qualifications and ISAPS, ASAPS or ASPS).
- Our TOP Breast Reduction Surgeons operate in HOSPITALS (not back rooms) because hospital sterilisation and patient safety protocols are better monitored in these facilities.
- Remember, doctors, calling themselves “cosmetic surgeons” DO NOT HOLD the same qualifications or hospital operating rights as genuine Plastic Surgeon.
For more information on our Breast Reduction Surgeons, click on individual surgeon links below.
* DOWNLOAD A GUIDE about the procedure or contact us
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Please Contact Us using the form below to arrange a consultation with one of our Specialist Plastic Surgeons or to speak with our Patient Care Team on (03) 8849 1444.
Book your Initial Breast Reduction Consultation
- A REFERRAL from your GP for a Breast Reduction consultation is a good idea if you have medical indications for having this procedure.
- You CAN have a consultation WITHOUT a Referral – BUT no Medicare rebates that MIGHT apply would be claimable without a referral BEFORE your consultation.
- There is a $200 booking fee for reserving your place with a top Melbourne Plastic Surgeon.
- Waiting times may apply especially during busy periods.
- However, seeing a recommended surgeon with a great reputation and consumer reviews is worth waiting for, and we’ll do everything we can to help you get an appointment time that suits your needs.
- And once you schedule a consultation, we can provide excellent resources about breast surgery including consumer information, normal recovery periods, healing and recovery planning aids, scar management strategies to fade your scars over time, and more.
- Our Surgeons have the latest techniques and technologies to manage your procedure with high excellence and surgical expertise; choose one of our trusted Surgeons for their dedication to YOUR consumer education, surgery experience, recovery and healing and scar minimisation – with great shaping results and surgical shaping strategies to get you a pleasing aesthetic result AND less weight volume for greater resting/exercise/movement comfort and physique-balance.
GLOSSARY of MEDICAL TERMS for Breast Reduction
- Breast Reduction for Women – a Reduction Mammoplasty that involves resizing and uplifting breasts and nipples
- Breast Reduction for Men – Surgery to reduce man boobs (Gynaecomastia surgery)
- Reduction Mammoplasty – a surgical procedure to
- reduce breast volume (reducing weight, volume and size) and
- improve the position, shape and appearance of the breasts and nipples).
- Liposuction – suction-driven methods and cannulae devices used to remove adipose tissues (such up fat stores) to minimise volume and reduce fat cells in certain areas of the body, such as near or around the breast or bra area of the sides/back of torso
- No Scar Breast Reduction – an inaccurate term used to describe liposuction only breast reduction, which leaves small scars where cannulas are inserted but no breast scars
- Skin Ptosis – drooping skin, sagging skin, lax skin
- Breast Ptosis and Ptotic Nipples – drooping breasts that sag and appear to ‘fall’ downwards; downward pointing nipples
- Breast Mound – the shape of the breast, the volume of breast tissues/glandular tissue
- Glandular tissue – the complex network of structures designed to carry milk to the nipples
- Breast Composition – how much glandular tissue vs fat is in the breast, ratios
- Nipple Areola Complex or ‘NAC’ – the area of the breast that involves the nipple and surrounding tissues that are darker or different in colour to the overall breast skin
- Plastic Surgeon – a Specialist for cosmetic, plastic and reconstructive procedures, who has studied for at least 12 years and undergone substantial training and examination
- Cosmetic Surgeon – usually a GP, skin doctor or dentist who has NOT had specialist qualifications in plastic surgery and does NOT have operating rights in accredited private Hospitals; may have taken a year-long course as opposed to the extensive training of a Plastic Surgeon, who is FRACS (Plas)
- FRACS – Royal Australasian College of Surgeons – a body that oversees surgical recognition and testing for Specialists in Australia who pass extensive exams
- Liposuction – suction-driven methods and cannulae devices used to remove adipose tissues (such up fat stores) to minimise volume and reduce fat cells in certain areas of the body
- Excision – surgical removal of tissues
- Incisions – surgical cuts made by a sharp instrument such as a surgical knife, laser or other instruments
- Scars – marks left after skin heals from an incision or tissue excision
- Sutures – stitches
- Surgical markings – marks your surgeon makes on your body and skin, BEFORE your breast reduction procedure
- Risks – health concerns or potential risks of having surgery or of having a complication
Australian Society of Plastic Surgeons (Find specialist plastic surgeons), Australian Society of Plastic Surgeons (Patient Safety Regulated by Plastic Surgery Regulation Laws or Information for patients, Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency AHPRA (Register of practitioners), Health Victoria (The Department of Health and Human Services).
Scientific Articles on Breast Reduction: Plastic Surgery Journals (Peer-reviewed) Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Oct;120(5):1095-104; discussion 1105-7. Breast reduction: modified “Lejour technique” in 500 large breasts. Authors: Hofmann AK1, Wuestner-Hofmann MC, Bassetto F, Scarpa C, Mazzoleni F. Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17898581